Tuesday, November 28, 2017

PROJECT SARASWATI: In Setback to 'Saraswati’ Theory, Study Says Sutlej Had Bigger Role to Play in Indus Civilisation


                                  PROJECT SARASWATI

         In Setback to              ‘Saraswati’ Theory,   Study Says Sutlej Had      Bigger Role to Play        in Indus Civilisation



 28  NOV 2017

A new geological investigation has found that the Harappan sites of Banawali and Kalibangan occupied a valley in which the river Sutlej used to flow before it shifted course 8,000 years ago.

Remnant of a street in the urban centre of Kalibangan. The Ghaggar-Hakra palaeochannel can be seen in the distance. Credit: S. Gupta (Imperial College London)

According to the Rig Veda, the river Saraswati originated in the Himalayas, flowed between the Yamuna and the Sutlej and discharged itself in the sea. Many archaeologists believed for decades that the Saraswati fed a portion of the Indus valley civilisation, including the Indus settlements of Banawali and Kalibangan, situated between the present-day courses of the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers. Today, the area of land corresponding to this portion is fed only by ephemeral rivers that flow when it rains, and is otherwise arid.
What happened to the Saraswati?

Inthe absence [ http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=118384  of conclusive evidence, the river was considered to be ‘lost’, and by some to be the now-feeble  Ghaggar  river (called Hakra on the Pakistani side). Shortly after coming to power at the Centre in 2014, the Narendra Modi government revived efforts  [  http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-modi-government-picks-up-saraswati-from-where-vajpayee-govt-left-it-2280128 ] to ‘find’ the Saraswati, considered sacred by many Hindus. The governments of Haryana and Rajasthan also allocated Rs 80 crore together to aid the effort.
A new study  http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-modi-government-picks-up-saraswati-from-where-vajpayee-govt-left-it-2280128  ]by researchers from India and the UK could give them pause. It claims that the portion of the civilisation between the Sutlej and Yamuna was not fed by a perennial river driven by melting Himalayan glaciers, as was previously thought. Instead, the researchers claim that Banawali and Kalibangan were located in a valley that used to be watered by the Sutlej, but that the river had shifted course over 3,000 years before the civilisation was even founded.
In other words, the two settlements had flourished in an abandoned valley.
The researchers obtained sediments at multiple locations in this area and analysed them extensively. They inferred that the river Sutlej had shifted course between 15,000 and 8,000 years ago to its current track, flowing generally west-southwest from its origin near Mt Kailash (see image below). The channel of its previous course is called the Ghaggar-Hakra palaeochannel. And the researchers think the palaeochannel’s banks, and not the Sutlej’s or any other river’s, hosted the cities of Banawali and Kalibangan.
“It is an important paper confirming that the region between the Indus and Ganges watersheds was not fed by Sutlej during Harappan times,” Liviu Giosan, an associate scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts, told The Wire“This is one more nail into the coffin of the Himalayan Sarasvati (sic) theory!”
Detective Work
The Indus valley civilisation, also known as the Harappan civilisation, spanned the years from 3,300 BCE to 1,700 BCE, overlapping with the period known as the Bronze Age. Based on excavations since the late 19th century, it was estimated to span a total area of over a million sq. km, larger in extent than the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilisations of its time. Most of the civilisation was fed by water from the Indus river, which flows from western Tibet through the length of what is now Pakistan before draining into the Arabian Sea in Sindh province.
However, where Banawali and Kalibangan got their water from has eluded consensus. And while many scientists have argued that they were fed by a river, there has also been a debate on whether it was a big Himalayan river or a gentler monsoonal river.

A topographic map showing northwestern India and Pakistan, the major Himalayan rivers and the distribution of urban settlements of the Indus civilisation. Notice how the most prominent clusters of settlements are not located adjacent to modern, active large Himalayan rivers. Caption and credit: P.J. Mason/S. Gupta

The geological investigation, led by Sanjeev Gupta, a professor at the department of earth science and engineering at Imperial College London, claims to have settled these questions.
First, Gupta and his colleagues obtained images taken by the Landsat Earth-observing satellite of the area in the 1980s, before the advent of large-scale irrigation there, and studied the distribution of soil moisture. “What we discovered was because the palaeochannel was at a topographic low in the landscape, it accumulated fine-grained mud,” Gupta told The Wire. “And mud retains water.”

A detailed Landsat 5 TM colour composite satellite image showing the Ghaggar-Hakra palaeochannel is a sinew of deep blue. The blueness indicates how moist the soil is. Locations of urban-phase Indus settlements along the Ghaggar-Hakra palaeochannel are shown as white triangles. Credit: P.J. Mason/S. Gupta

Next, they went to a site near Kalibangan and drilled up to 45 metres below ground and recovered sand grains. “In the lower part we had coarse sand and then in the upper part, in the top eight metres, the sediment became very, very fine-grained,” Gupta said. The coarser the grains, the more the discharge is of the river that deposited them.

Detailed sedimentary features of core recovered from site GS10 at Kalibangan. Scale bar is 1 cm in all images. (a) Silty clay at 2 m depth; (b) interlaminated silt and very fine sand at 4 m depth; (c) red-brown clayey silt at 6.5 m depth; and (d) grey micaceous fine sand at 17 m depth. Caption and credit: DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-01643-9

To discover the source of the sediments, the researchers recovered two minerals from the sand – mica and zircon – and measured their ages using radiometric dating. According to Gupta, “What this tells us is not the age of the sediments but where the grains have come from.” They got this answer by comparing the grains and their ages to those collected in the modern-day Sutlej, Yamuna, Ganges and Ghaggar rivers as well as with various rock units in the Himalayas.
“What we found was that the grains we had clearly matched the Sutlej exactly. That’s how we can say that this was the former Sutlej,” Gupta said.
He and his team also subjected the mica to potassium-argon dating. They also employed a third method, called optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). “When mineral grains like quartz and feldspar become buried in a sediment column and aren’t exposed to light, natural radiation causes electrons to become trapped in the mineral’s atomic lattice,” Gupta explained. “When the mineral is re-exposed to sunlight, the electrons are released. What it’s doing is it’s building up charge, if you like, when they’re buried.”
So after the minerals from the sediments were recovered in darkness, Gupta and his colleagues shined infrared light on them. As the electrons are released from their cage of atoms, the minerals luminesce. By measuring the amount of luminescence, you can measure the age of the grain. “And we performed a really detailed analysis using this method and found that their ages ranged from 8,000 years to 70,000 years.”
Both potassium-argon dating and OSL led them to the same conclusion: the people of Banawali and Kalibangan inhabited the valley left behind by the Sutlej river over 8,000 years ago.
For Gupta, what is interesting is that the palaeochannel provided a comfortable landscape, with a “topographic low” – a depression in the land – “where rainfall and monsoon flow would have been concentrated and also protected the cities from the big floods of the Himalayan rivers.”
“If the paper passed peer-review” – which it did – then there is no reason to doubt the paper’s conclusions, according to Maarten Kleinhans, chair in process sedimentology and fluviodeltaic morphodynamics at the faculty of geosciences, University of Utrecht. “I can’t see how they could have done a better job with the means available, although my hands are itching to run some models and experiments.”
But there is room for caution. “There are always pinches of salt to be taken, because this sort of science is like detective work: geologists start with hypotheses, collect the clues as far as possible, available and as far as they recognise them, they build up one or a few possible explanatory stories of how the system developed, and keep checking whether pieces of the puzzle tell a different story,” Kleinhans continued. But because Gupta and team have amassed more evidence than before, “it will require even more data and surprises in that data to overthrow these ideas.”
The summer monsoon’s decline
When a river shifts course, it’s called an avulsion, and “rivers do this”, according to Gupta. Between 15,000 and 8,000 years ago, the Sutlej avulsed from where the Ghaggar-Hakra palaeochannel is today to where the Sutlej itself flows today. The two courses are separated by about 150 km. The avulsion node, the point at which the river changed course, is located close to where the Sutlej exits the Himalayas. While the researchers have not identified the cause of the avulsion, they mention – speculatively – that the Indian summer monsoon might have played a part.
Studies, such as one from 2005 and another from 2015, have suggested that the summer monsoon was declining in strength about 5,000 years ago (with many fluctuations before that as well). The reasons are multifarious, including shifting winds and sea temperatures. So Indus valley sites like Banawali and Kalibangan, dependent as they were on monsoonal sources of water according to Gupta’s study, could have been affected by these shifts. However, Gupta is wary, saying that “archaeological studies haven’t been able to date these events in great detail”.
Around 1,300 BCE, or 3,300 years ago, the Indus valley civilisation began to peter out for reasons that remain unknown. Some speculation among scientists has focused on, among various factors, the summer monsoon (note: the civilisation’s end can’t be attributed to a single cause). To contribute to this debate, a group of archaeologists analysed animal teeth and bone phosphates 
discovered in a trench in Bhirrana village, Haryana. They used the oxygen isotope levels in the specimens as a proxy for rainfall levels and deduced that the monsoon didn’t directly drive the civilisation’s decline.
Instead, they said in a paper published in May 2016 that the faltering rains forced the Harappans to shift from planting wheat and barley crops to the more drought-resistant millets and rice. As a result, they wrote, “Because these later crops generally have much lower yield, the organised large storage system of the mature Harappan period was abandoned, giving rise to smaller, more individual, household-based crop processing and storage systems, and could act as catalyst for the de-urbanisation of the Harappan civilisation”.

The Sutlej river winds its way through Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. Credit: darshansphotos/Flickr, CC BY 2.0

Interest in the wane of the Indus valley civilisation also overlaps with discovering the Saraswati river (should it exist). Its description in the Rig Veda, a collection of Sanskrit hymns written sometime after 1,700 BCE, matches what the investigation led by Gupta has found – in that there was a perennial river flowing in the Ghaggar-Hakra palaeochannel. At the same time, the Sutlej only flowed there till about 8,000 years ago.
Although scientists have figured out how Banawali and Kalibangan could have been watered, other mysteries remain. One is of Rakigarhi, a large city of the civilisation – in the present-day Hissar district of Haryana – that is proximate neither to rivers nor to any known palaeochannels. “It’s very bizarre,” Gupta said. “That’s something that people don’t really understand because there doesn’t seem to be any trace of a palaeochannel there. So that’s work in progress. Rakigarhi is a very big site compared to Kalibangan, so how did they get their water resources?”
Other things in progress will be to confirm what Gupta and his colleagues are implying. For example, their paper states that the conclusions of their study means it “seems improbable that Indus settlements flourished due to ‘perennial’ monsoon-fed river flow”, a suggestion made by Giosan in 2012. However, Giosan said, “Whether the monsoonal rivers feeding the abandoned Sutlej valley were perennial or seasonal during Harappan and Vedic periods remains to be seen. Data presented in the new paper is not diagnostic for either of these interpretations.”
Yet others will be to test Gupta et al’s conclusions as well. According to Kleinhans, this can be done through “studies … that can indicate where the water or sediment came from, or what sort of natural plants grew there at the time to unravel how much water they got. Another alternative could perhaps come from powerful computer modelling of the water and sediment fluxes to test whether their hypotheses do not somehow conflict with the laws of physics.”

“All of this is a lot of work,” he added. In the meantime, we can appreciate a new way to think about rivers. To quote from Gupta’s paper: 
“It was the departure of the river, rather than its arrival, that triggered the growth of Indus urban settlements”.

Monday, November 27, 2017

Is Tibet a closed chapter of history?



     [  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R2KzHF3GAQY  ]

          India's World - Tibet in Sino-Indian Ties


"Tibet"  Is It a Closed Chapter of History?

The fact that China occupied Tibet ,a sovereign country, and is threatening any country which shows solidarity with Tibet is the testimony of expansive mindset of Communists in China. The outrageous claims in SCS and also distributing of maps to its troops which include Arunachal Pradesh as a part of China is an indication of CCP plans for further expansion into other countries territories. The threat from CCP is very real and is very disturbing to peace in Asia.

Nations want to take advantage of low cost manufacturing conditions, China is no exception. Based on the estimations and projections , 10 year double digit growth in GDP will make India economically strong and close the gap between India and China. India has the initiative and advantage when it comes to alliances and strategic relations to counter Chinese aggression. India should strengthen the economic and military relationship with other like minded countries in Asia. There must be an alliance between India, Japan, S.Korea and ASEAN to look after the economic and strategic interests in Asia.

It is a matter of time before the parity vis-a-vis China is restored 

Ajit Doval is India's National Security Adviser (NSA). He is a former Director of the Intelligence Bureau(IB)of India.He is a recipient of the Kirti Chakra, one of the highest military gallantry awards, the President's Police Medal for distinguished service, and the Indian Police Medal for meritorious service.He takes on national and global security issues ranging from counter- terrorism to India’s strategic challenges.

16 Jan 2013

Tibet – Is It a Closed Chapter of History? 

Is Tibet a closed chapter of history?
Many who take a short term view of history and mistake the present for perpetuity think so. For them, what exists is final. History in its march has, however, always proved the status quoists wrong - from the expansion and subsequent disintegration of the Roman empire to the balkanisation of the USSR. The old Tibetan saying that “The clouds of summer float by but the sky stays where it is forever,” underlines the oriental wisdom that anything that has changed in the past will change in the future as well. The long term strategic view of history often gets obfuscated in the dissonance of the immediate – the marching troops, political melodrama, shrill of the media and silence of the expediency. Muted but unmistakable changes in Tibet are discernible that makes revisiting the issue in the contemporary context relevant. 

There was an air of melancholy in Dalai Lama’s lamentation that, “When Tibet was free, we took our freedom for granted. Our physical isolation lulled us into a sense of complacency”. In former times, Tibetans were a war–like nation whose influence spread far and wide. With the advent of Buddhism our military prowess declined”. But more than the melancholy, it was reiteration of the harsh reality of human experience that goodness, unless fortified by strength to assert it, is meaningless and verdict of the world is always in favour of the strong and not the right. 

The developments that took place from the invasion of Tibet’s eastern province of Kham by the Chinese army in 1949 to its total subjugation in 1959 and leading to the exodus of over one hundred thousand Tibetans led by the Dalai Lama is a sordid chapter of history. It was all the more so as it came close on the heels of post-war UN Charter that asserted that the world was determined to uphold, “The dignity and worth of the human persons, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained.” It appeared that the world was ushering into a new era – but it was not. The tragedy was not only what the Chinese army did but more so what rest of the world failed to do. 

For centuries, these distinct people inhabiting the roof top of the world had a common civilisation, a unique priest-patron governmental system, flag, currency and sovereign rights to enter treaties. There is a long and continuous recorded history of Tibet from the time of King Songtsen Gompo from Sixth Century AD till date underlining its separate identity. However, as true of most ancient states, Tibet too had its ups and downs during its long history and there were times when its freedom in varying degrees was over-cast under some Chinese empires. It is, however, also true that there had been periods when strong Tibetan regimes exercised control over Chinese territories. One of the landmark treaties was signed between Tibetans and the Chinese as early as 821 AD evident by the text on the stone pillar close to Jokhang temple in Lhasa which states that “Great Tibet” and “Great China” would “act towards each other with respect, friendship and equality.” 

As an independent nation, Tibet entered into treaties with Bushair (1681), Laddakh (1683 and 1842), Nepal (1856), Mongolia (1913) etc. Signing of the Shimla treaty in 1914 with the British where it delineated its frontier with India is a historic landmark. 

In recent history, Tibet enjoyed all the characteristics of a sovereign nation following expulsion of the Chinese forces from the Tibetan territory by the 13th Dalai Lama in 1911. All pre-1950 maps, globes and atlases show Tibet as an independent nation. There was an independently functioning government in Tibet when on the dawn of October 6, 1950, 52nd, 53rd and 54th divisions of the 18th Army of the Chinese military attacked the Tibetan frontier, guarded by 3,500 soldiers and by 2,000 Khampa militiamen. Though heavily outnumbered, Tibetean forces fought to the last man on the banks of Drichu river and at the river crossing near Markham in the South. 

The fact that Tibet was an independent country that was invaded by China was upheld by the Legal Enquiry Committee of the International Commission of Jurists. It asserted in its report that, “Tibet demonstrated from 1913 to 1950 the conditions of statehood as generally accepted under international law. In 1950, there was a people and a territory, and a government that functioned in that territory, conducting its own domestic affairs free from any outside authority. From 1913-1950, foreign relations of Tibet were conducted exclusively by the Government of Tibet, and countries with whom Tibet had foreign relations are shown by official documents to have treated Tibet as an independent State.” Historical realities are hard to wish away and like the buried seeds assert themselves when the time is ripe. 

The relevance of the Tibet issue is, however, not only political. Much beyond politics there lies a threatened civilisation, cultural heritage, spiritual order and way of life nurtured over the centuries. The struggle in Tibet more than political is for its cultural and spiritual survival. In the march of history the identities rooted in these enduring human attainments prove to be indissoluble; often unfolding the future in most unpredictable ways. 

As often misconstrued, civilisational identity of Tibet is not limited to the geographical confines of the Chinese drawn Tibetan Autonomous Region (TAR). It extends far beyond and includes areas inhabited by the people who identify themselves as ‘Bodpas’ and consider the Dalai Lama as their temporal and spiritual head. Often referred as ‘historical’ or ‘cultural’ Tibet, besides TAR, includes provinces of Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan; together accounting for roughly one fourth of what constitutes present day China. These areas with an average altitude of 3,000 meters are topographically clearly distinguishable with non-Tibetan low lands and are marked by a sparse density of population, ethnically different from people of mainland China. 

The other aspect that lends the Tibetan issue a sense of urgency is its human rights dimension. The deeply religious people unable to defend themselves have fallen victim to rapacious expansionism and religious suppression of a power, that subscribes to the Marxian prototype that, “Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature.” 

The post 2009 spate of protests and suicides that have rocked Tibet are as much against Sinocisation and cultural degradation as for political freedom. The gruesome trail of self immolations over the years has become more intense, widespread and frequent; the year 2012 alone recording over 82 incidents. Significantly, the incidents were not only confined to Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) but also to ‘historical Tibet; which includes several areas that have now been declared as non-Tibetan provinces of China.

For last six decades the people of Tibet have been facing grave violation of human rights, denial of religious freedom and restrictions to pursue their way of life. Ample evidence of gross human rights violations have been placed before the UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) and other international bodies by the Tibetans living in exile and their supporters. In March 2012, four international NGOs deposed before the UNHRC on gross violation of human rights, abuse of power and denial of religious freedom. Faith in pacifist philosophy of Buddhism, small and scattered population, economic poverty and lack of international support make the hapless population an easy target for the Chinese army to suppress and subjugate. Dubbing Dalai Lama as a conspirator, the Chinese consider these self immolations as part of his crafty mechanisms. The Chinese Embassy in New Delhi in its website reproduced a December 11, 2012, report of People’s Daily insinuating that self-immolations in China's ethnic Tibetan areas was "among the latest tactics that the Dalai clique has taken in recent years to achieve their political purposes". This, however, has failed to obfuscate the harsh reality that the resentment in Tibet against repression and violation of human rights is assuming serious proportions. There is a need for realistic and meaningful initiatives by all stake holders, including the international community to establish peace and normalcy in Tibet. It is unfortunate that the talks between Dalai Lama and the Chinese did not yield any fruitful results. There exists a sort of stalemate which needs to be broken through bold political initiatives. 

The problem of over one million Tibetan exiles, living in different parts of the world, is another important dimension of the Tibetan issue. These exiles, most of them living in India, in terms of their legal status, being neither citizens of any country, nor refugees, illegal immigrants or stateless persons are non-existent. Uprooted from their homeland for over half a century their economic and social life is in shambles. The only hope that sustains them is their abiding faith in the Dalai Lama’s leadership, their religious and temporal head, who heads the Tibetan government in exile and takes care of their basic survival needs. This, however, is undergoing a change following the Dalai Lama’s historic step to give up his political power.

The Dalai Lama’s voluntary abdication of his political power in March 2011 and its devolution to an elected democratic leadership is a watershed point. In April 2011, Dr. Lobsang Sangay was elected to the high office of Kalon Tripa (Prime Minister) of the government in exile. This step has long term implications. First, of course, is that hereafter the political and administrative powers which were earlier vested in the Dalai Lama would be exercised by a democratically elected body. Secondly, it brings about a separation of religious authority from the political authority which had been the hallmark of the priest-patron relationship in Tibet for centuries. Lastly, and most importantly, this brings to an end reliance of the movement to the life of an individual. It will prove those wrong who thought that the life of the Tibetan movement, was co-terminus with that of the Dalai Lama. Through this transfer of political power, the Dalai Lama has made every Tibetan- in and out of Tibet - a stake holder in the Tibetan struggle. 

From Indian perspective, Tibet has a special security import. India shares nearly a 4,000 km. of border with Tibet, which is now the Sino –Indian border. Despite India’s best efforts and sixteen rounds of talks to settle the border dispute, little progress has been made in this direction. China’s development of military infrastructural in Tibet, assistance to Pakistan in developing strategic weapon systems, new assertions in the Indian Ocean, claiming Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh as ‘Southern Tibet’ etc. have raised security concerns in India. Seen in the backdrop of China’s rise as a major military and economic power and its comprehensive military modernisation programme, that is more aggressive than defensive, serious security concerns have been raised in India. India’s security interests are thus intricately linked to developments in Tibet and need detailed study and analysis.

In recent years, there has been considerable interest among the scholars, human right activists, strategic thinkers and people at large about Tibet. I am happy that Vivekananda International Foundation (VIF) is bringing out a publication focussing on different aspects of the Tibet imbroglio. Some noted experts and professionals with long experience have contributed to this work. The articles cover a wide range of issues providing comprehensive perspectives as also an analysis of contemporary developments. I am grateful to Ambassador Prabhat Shukla for his painstaking efforts to bring out this book. I am sure the readers will find the publication useful. 

Saturday, November 25, 2017



                      WARNING  -  धम्की  -  DHAMKI   

          WARNING  -  धम्की  -  DHAMKI


               NEXT  INDO- PAK   WAR

Unlike   INDO-  PAK   WARS  from ( of )   1947- 48   and its continuation  to date  with  war  of  TERRORIST STRIKES  going on  since 1989-90  in the Indian sub continent,  


Next war  with Pakistan will be fought not only  with TACTICAL  NUKES   & MODERN INSTRUMENTS OF  MODERN WARFARE  It will  also be fought at a mammoth scale  with                       
               KNIVES SWORDS & EVEN BRICKS. 


            It will be a war of  HATRED , it will be a war  of  



Democracy in India has been hijacked by THE 


IGNORANT VOTE BANK . This phenomena  is 

gradually giving rise to  "LOCAL WAR LORDS"

WITH   THICK WAR CLOUDS  OF  RELIGIOUS  HATRED  AND THE CHINK COLONIAL LIBERATION(read perpetual slavery)  PEOPLES ARMY breaching the borders every second day it is time now for   "WAKE UP CALL"

Experience of last seventy years has demonstrated in absolute crystal clear way that an AVERAGE citizen is on his own





our own wars since independence. Most of

 us either have participated in these wars 

or were in service or are aware of these 

happenings . A few videos are placed 

below to begin with. To spread awareness


collective responsibility. 

          DO NOT DEPEND ON  "NETAS " 

          For them once an entry to the  



                  TIME FOR LOOT

               for next five years


 If you haven't viewed these videos 

before, you might like to view them 

sequentially- eight episodes of approx 

22 minutes each, presented by Mr 

Kabir Bedi (for "Headlines Today")

Episode 1: 1971 War :      https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=XH7Q5jXGzXg

Episode 2: 1971 War :      https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=TANNDticUck

Episode 3: 1947 War :      https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=huvEzONcutw

Episode 4: 1962 War :      https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=y0lc6b4bVX4

Episode 5: 1965 War :      https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=X-DuD_CHYwM

Episode 6: 1987 IPKF in Srilanka:      https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=ULDYqMRrSxQ

Episode 7: Kargil War Pt 1:       https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=I0iIqnw6fLw

Episode 8; Kargil War-Pt 2:      https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=xLh9DINk4QU